U.S., Schedules of Special Census of Indians, 1880  

In 1880, census enumerators preparing the general population schedules were instructed to include Native Americans who were “not in tribal relations”—that is, not living on an agency or reservation. A special schedule would record “Indians not taxed”—that is, Native Americans who were nomadic or lived on government Indian agencies or reservations. These individuals were enumerated in a separate special census that year. This record collection in Ancestry Library Edition (Ancestry LE) contains images of those census schedules.

The following agencies and reservations are included in this record collection. Each is a confederation—that is, a group of fairly small tribes that elected to band together to form a larger unit.

    Lummi Reservation (Washington State)
    Muckleshoot Reservation (Washington State)
    Port Madison Reservation (Washington State)
    Round Valley Agency (California)
    Standing Rock Agency (South Dakota)
    Swinhomish Reservation (Washington State)
    Tulalip Agency (Washington State)
    Yakama Reservation (Washington State)

Census listings vary somewhat by agency, but can include:

    Indian name
    English translation
    Relation to head of household
    Civil conditions
    Personal description (includes age)
    Personal property
    Land owned
    Land in severalty
    Sources of subsistence

You can locate this record collection in this way:


You can use Ancestry LE at Central Library or any of our branches


We welcome your respectful and on-topic comments and questions in this limited public forum. To find out more, please see Appropriate Use When Posting Content. Community-contributed content represents the views of the user, not those of St. Louis Public Library